Science is a systematic approach that unites and develops information in the form of precise testable predictions and hypothesis about the universe. Science strives to solve the problem, hypothesis or questions it has tackled at the lowest possible level by employing methods and apparatus that have been well-tested and proven to be effective. The scope of science covers all the natural categories of the universe and includes physical, chemical, electrical, optical, atomic and nuclear fields. Some of the more common subcategories are x-ray, optics, biology, physics, astronomy and genomics. One of the most important characteristics of science is its independence from religion. Religion often gets in the way of scientific research and experiments because of its commitment to a particular Theory of Relativity or religion often demands blind faith as a test of truth. There have been numerous debates regarding the validity of science and the role it plays in society today. While some scientists argue over the definition of science, most people consider it to be the only significant endeavor mankind has undertaken so far. Relatively new and less well-known subdisciplines in science are philosophy of science (OS science), philosophy of mind (PM science), probability theory, cosmology, and pseudo-science such as astrology and paranormal research. Philosophy of science deals with disputes concerning how natural phenomena occur, what their origins are, and how they can be tested. Philosophy of mind deals with the ability of human beings to think rationally about concepts such as reality, fantasy, and schizophrenia. Probability theory postulates that chance is an independent factor in creating reality and many scientific theories contradict this belief. Cosmology deals with the composition and structure of the entire universe, and can theoretically describe a wide range of celestial objects. Pseudo science also includes a wide variety of subjects such as parapsychology, cryptology, spiritualism and psychics. A parapsychologist is a professional who uses an unusual means to communicate with the dead or spirits. A psychic is someone who is able to receive communication from a dead person, but doesn’t have the necessary skills to pass on this information. Skeptic’s scientific speculation is a branch of skepticism that examines the claims made by many established science-based institutions, while discounting claims made by fringe scientists and “out-and-loud” public figures as fake news. Some examples of pseudo sciences are astronomy, anthropology, archeology, bacteriology, climate change, genetics, mathematics, physics, astronomy, physics, and space travel. Astronomy refers to the study of the universe, including its motion and composition. Archeology explores the history of humanity, focusing on ancient buildings such as pyramids and the rise and fall of civilizations. Climate change demonstrates the inter-connectivity of air, land, and water through climate cycles. Genomics describes the development of various forms of life through the generations. And space travel is an exciting avenue for exploration as it can lead to discoveries about the origins of the universe, the possibilities for living organisms, and even possible ways to colonize other planets. The debate between philosophy and science has been ongoing since the dawn of time. In recent years, interest in these two types of science has increased with the popularization of television shows such as Star Trek and The X-Files, as well as the popularity of books such as The DaVinci Code. Some people view these fictional portrayals of science as nothing more than fanciful stories meant only to entertain. Others, however, see the science depicted as a testable physical reality.
Science is the systematic process by which an individual or group of individuals identifies, records, reproduces, modifies and interprets scientific information in such a way as to support their claims. In the most broad sense science is the discipline that describes the physical sciences which are science, physics, chemistry, astronomy, and zoology. Science is also related to the other natural sciences that are life science, biology, zoology, ecology, forestry, environmental science and engineering science. In addition, there are many sub-disciplines within the science discipline. One important area of science is the scientific method, which is the systematic process by which observations and/or experiments provide testable predictions or explain the results of such observations. In order for a hypothesis to be properly science, it must be able to pass a series of tests, which includes refutation, disproof, and induction. A hypothesis can be tested using a variety of different methods including observational science, experimental science, and clinical science. An hypothesis can be rejected in one area but not in another, therefore science is not limited to a black and white answer. There are two major areas of science that are directly related to each other; physics and chemistry. Physics deals with how the world works with its atoms, molecules, and forces. Chemistry deals with how matter is made up and is connected. The relationship between these two areas of science is often very strong, especially when it comes to the observation of reality. The study of how observations fit together and how they can be explained by different theories is known as science. Examples of these theories include physical laws, general relativity, thermodynamics, and genetics. Science studies any phenomena that can be observed and are consistent with the predictions made by theory. For example, if observations from an observational science test show that a particular hypothesis is correct then that specific hypothesis can be considered to have passed a scientific test. However, if observations do not support the validity of a hypothesis then this can be used as a reason to reject that hypothesis. When a proposition is rejected by observational science, it is then referred to as a hypothesis. hypothesis simply means that it makes a claim based on observations that cannot be disproved, but can be considered as an idea whose chance of being verified has been reduced. Once a hypothesis has been rejected it is then referred to as a theory. The hypothesis is considered to have passed a strict test of scientific credibility through the consistent results obtained through repeated observation and study. After a hypothesis has been passed by the scientific method, it is tested through experiments. The purpose of these experiments is to discover if the scientific theories that were previously proposed were correct. In order for this to occur, numerous controlled trials must be conducted and the data collected are analyzed using various scientific techniques and methods. Once all of the data sets and analyses from these trials are combined, a final conclusion is reached about the validity of the original hypothesis. If the results of the analysis prove that the original hypothesis is incorrect, it is then deemed to be a false statement. This is how science determines the validity of its hypotheses and how they are accepted or rejected in the scientific community.
Science is the systematic approach to the natural world that brings together the different sciences with a common theme of explanation, measurement and control of nature. The scientific approach starts from the earliest times of science when people were not yet able to classify and describe nature. They could only make general observations and make inferences from these general observations. Later on, the real science started with the study of nature. This involved many scientific disciplines such as zoology, botany, forestry, ecology, physics, astronomy, geology, archeology and others. In modern times, science is an advanced approach to understand nature through the use of many scientific disciplines such as genetics, paleontology, ecology, neuroscience, computer science and mathematics. The scientific practices include observing, recording, creating or discovering, testing and understanding the natural world around us. It also includes the application of those sciences in the practical world by making use of scientific instruments, techniques and knowledge to describe, record, evaluate and explain the natural world. There are many theories which are developed in the course of science which are essential for the development of our knowledge. Theory is used to describe a set of observations and its results, while models are used to predict the results of experiments and tests based on the theory. The major components of science include observation, measurements and experimental and statistical methods. Observation is the ability to see, detect or test something that does not exist already. For instance, if you observe that some stars move around the night, you can make a description of the motion using the laws of Isaac Newton and use this information to explore the properties of the star and to test if it has a stable orbit around the galaxy. Measurement is the ability to take a measurable amount of data and determine its nature and characteristics. For instance, the distance and the position of the stars can be measured to study their properties and to study their variations. Finally, there is the use of statistical methods to evaluate and compare observed data to new evidence. A good example is the scientific method used to distinguish between different types of physical phenomena. It first separates the hypothesis (the idea or belief) from the phenomena. It then follows a chain of cause and effect to identify which hypothesis is the true one. It is usually the hypothesis that is considered most accurate. Science also includes other areas such as cosmology, nuclear physics, planetary science, particle physics and others. The former works within the solar system, while the latter focuses on the universe and the big bang theory. A cosmologist studies the effects of general relativity and can search for the relationship between space and time, and between matter and energy. Nuclear physics mainly deals with the properties of subatomic particles and takes the measurement of energy. The last includes a wide range of topics such as particle physics, high energy physics, nuclear medicine and solid state science. The specific areas of science that are included in the definitions for science of all disciplines are the natural sciences which are general ones such as biology, chemistry and physics, as well as those more specific areas like botany, zoology and geology. Some people think that only humans can be scientists because they observe, experiment and differentiate phenomena. But a scientist is someone who can explain the nature and properties of natural phenomena and who can apply physical theories to derive predictions that can be tested by other scientists. A good example of a scientist is Newton who not only discovered the laws of gravity, but also explained why and how it happens.