Types of Science
Science is a systematic approach that unites and develops information in the form of precise testable predictions and hypothesis about the universe. Science strives to solve the problem, hypothesis or questions it has tackled at the lowest possible level by employing methods and apparatus that have been well-tested and proven to be effective. The scope of science covers all the natural categories of the universe and includes physical, chemical, electrical, optical, atomic and nuclear fields. Some of the more common subcategories are x-ray, optics, biology, physics, astronomy and genomics.
One of the most important characteristics of science is its independence from religion. Religion often gets in the way of scientific research and experiments because of its commitment to a particular Theory of Relativity or religion often demands blind faith as a test of truth. There have been numerous debates regarding the validity of science and the role it plays in society today. While some scientists argue over the definition of science, most people consider it to be the only significant endeavor mankind has undertaken so far.
Relatively new and less well-known subdisciplines in science are philosophy of science (OS science), philosophy of mind (PM science), probability theory, cosmology, and pseudo-science such as astrology and paranormal research. Philosophy of science deals with disputes concerning how natural phenomena occur, what their origins are, and how they can be tested. Philosophy of mind deals with the ability of human beings to think rationally about concepts such as reality, fantasy, and schizophrenia. Probability theory postulates that chance is an independent factor in creating reality and many scientific theories contradict this belief. Cosmology deals with the composition and structure of the entire universe, and can theoretically describe a wide range of celestial objects.
Pseudo science also includes a wide variety of subjects such as parapsychology, cryptology, spiritualism and psychics. A parapsychologist is a professional who uses an unusual means to communicate with the dead or spirits. A psychic is someone who is able to receive communication from a dead person, but doesn’t have the necessary skills to pass on this information. Skeptic’s scientific speculation is a branch of skepticism that examines the claims made by many established science-based institutions, while discounting claims made by fringe scientists and “out-and-loud” public figures as fake news.
Some examples of pseudo sciences are astronomy, anthropology, archeology, bacteriology, climate change, genetics, mathematics, physics, astronomy, physics, and space travel. Astronomy refers to the study of the universe, including its motion and composition. Archeology explores the history of humanity, focusing on ancient buildings such as pyramids and the rise and fall of civilizations. Climate change demonstrates the inter-connectivity of air, land, and water through climate cycles. Genomics describes the development of various forms of life through the generations. And space travel is an exciting avenue for exploration as it can lead to discoveries about the origins of the universe, the possibilities for living organisms, and even possible ways to colonize other planets.
The debate between philosophy and science has been ongoing since the dawn of time. In recent years, interest in these two types of science has increased with the popularization of television shows such as Star Trek and The X-Files, as well as the popularity of books such as The DaVinci Code. Some people view these fictional portrayals of science as nothing more than fanciful stories meant only to entertain. Others, however, see the science depicted as a testable physical reality.